Modern treatment has decreased the mortality rate of prostate cancer to just 12.8%, making it one of the most curable cancers. So in this article, we’ll be going over what prostate cancer is, its different forms and symptoms, and various possibilities for therapy, such as medical treatments abroad, which can ensure that patients receive particular prostate cancer treatments that are only available in certain countries.
Forms of Prostate Cancer:
The Prostate is a small, walnut-sized gland located directly below the bladder (where urine is stored) and is responsible for producing the seminal fluid. As the name implies, prostate cancer is a type of cancer that develops in the cells of the prostate gland. Prostate cancer can be of various kinds, depending on the type of cells where cancer starts to grow. Let’s go over a few of them.
Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate:
Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of prostate cancer. It is characterized by cancer that develops in epithelial tissues, such as the prostate gland. This type of cancer develops in the cells lining the prostate gland and its tubes. Nearly every man with prostate cancer has this type. They can be of two more classes, Acinar and Ductal, depending upon where cancer develops.
Transitional cell carcinoma of the Prostate:
Transitional cell carcinoma arises in the urethra (a tube that transfers the urine outside the body). It slowly starts to spread into the bladder and further into the prostate gland. It can also begin in the prostate cells and spread into other tissues, which is less common.
Squamous cell carcinoma of the Prostate:
Squamous cell carcinoma is another rare type of prostate cancer that arises in the squamous cells of the epithelium, a thin layer surrounding the prostate gland. This type of cancer is highly aggressive, but less than 3% of the reported prostate cancers are of this type.
Small cell Prostate Cancer:
Small cell prostate cancer is very different from the other types of cancer we’ve discussed. Most people with small cell prostate cancer are diagnosed much later, making proper treatment much more difficult. Less than 1% of the prostate cancers are of this type.
Symptoms of Prostate Cancer:
Like most cancers, symptoms of prostate cancer do not show up until the cancer has reached has progressed to a later stage, at which point it starts putting strain on the bladder and the urethra. Common symptoms at this point include:
- Frequent urination, especially during the night.
- Difficulty and pain in starting urination.
- Trouble in completely emptying the bladder.
- Pain or burning sensation during urination.
- Painful ejaculation.
- Blood in semen or urine.
- Erectile Dysfunction.
Signs and symptoms that the cancer has spread may include:
- Pain in bones and back.
- Loss of appetite.
- Pain in the testicles.
- Weight loss.
How to Treat Prostate Cancer:
Patients often wonder “Can Prostate cancer be cured?” And the answer is yes, prostate cancer is curable, and approximately 84% of all cases are found before the cancer has progressed to later stages. Following are a few of the best prostate cancer treatment options that are currently being used around the world:
The most common type of treatment for cancer in general. Cancer cells are targeted and destroyed using radiations and accelerators. Radiotherapy can potentially be used to decrease the course of advanced prostate cancer and relieve symptoms. It has proven to be very successful when combined with surgery in early stages of cancer.
Prostatectomy is a part of the standard treatment for prostate cancer. It involves the surgical removal of all or a part of the prostate gland. There are two main types of Prostatectomy depending upon the malignancy of the cancer.
Chemotherapy involves the use of chemicals to kill or halt the growth of the cancer cells. It is unlikely that chemotherapy alone is used to cure prostate cancer, but it can still provide many benefits to patients.
One of the factors that influence the growth of the prostate cancer cells is the male hormones called androgens, so lowering the levels of these hormones can help to slow the development of the cancer. Hormonal therapy for treating prostate cancer mainly involves lowering testosterone levels in the body by either surgical or medical castration. It is mainly used to remove trace amounts of cancer cells that are left after surgical treatment.
Cryosurgery is not an established therapy or standard treatment for prostate cancer, but it has been proven to improve the condition of the patients at later stages of the tumor. It involves the insertion of a metal probe through a small incision, and passing cold gas such as liquid nitrogen to freeze-kill the cancer cells.
Some advanced treatments for prostate cancer include:
High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU):
HIFU has been known to have remarkable effects for certain patients even when the cancer has progressed to later stages. It involves the use of an ultrasound probe to direct sound waves directed at the parts of the prostate gland with cancer.
Radium 223 Therapy:
Prostate cancer is treated using a radioactive substance, usually at the stage where it has spread to the bone. Radium 223 is used to target areas in the bone where the cancer is located, and through the use of radiation particles, cancer cells can directly target the cancer cells without damaging the healthy tissue such as the bone marrow.
Recovery from prostate cancer is possible, and it really depends at what stage the cancer is, and whether it can be controlled and cured or not. You are encouraged to discuss all the possible prostate cancer treatment options with your doctor. And if you feel like your options for treatment are limited in your country, you can always consider medical tourism services. There are many best hospitals prostate cancer around the world, and you reach them quite easily.
Written by Natalia Volvak