Xarelto (rivaroxaban) is a Novel Oral Anticoagulant (NOAC) medication manufactured by Bayer and Janssen Pharmaceutical, that promised to forever change the scenario of blood-thinner medications with a new “user-friendly” formula. The new drug was in fact marketed as “safer” and “easier to use” than its much older counterparts, Warfarin and other anti-platelet drugs, as it did not require continuous blood monitoring in specialized blood clinics.
Xarelto was also allegedly superior to other similar medications as it did not require the user to endure dietary restrictions, reduce alcohol consumption, and increased compliance with its easy “one pill per day” formula. However, later findings and researches performed after Xarelto was marketed in 2011, found that this medication is also associated with significant risks and dangers. In our other articles we already thoroughly explained how Xarelto is in fact associated with an increased risk for bleeding accidents and strokes, and how these side effects were even more dangerous as there’s no antidote available to reverse this medication’s potentially lethal effects. Several lawsuits have been filed against Xarelto by patients (or their relatives) who were negatively affected by its adverse reactions, including internal bleeding, severe hemorrhages, brain stroke, gastrointestinal bleeding and even death.
What about the other two Xarelto-closely related drugs Eliquis (apixaban) and Pradaxa (dabigatran)? Are all NOACs equally dangerous as Xarelto is? The main issue with all the NOACs is the fact that if a patient experiences a bleeding event, doctors have few options to treat him and save his life, as there’s no known reversal agent available for these medications. With other blood thinners such as warfarin or clopidogrel instead, an intravenous infusion of vitamin K or fresh platelets is generally sufficient to can halt the bleeding event. This is due to the peculiar mechanism of action of these drugs (direct thrombin inhibition, or direct coagulation factor Xa inhibition), although some antidotes are actively researched by their respective manufacturers.
Pradaxa (dabigatran) – the first NOAC to kill patients
Pradaxa was first marketed by Boehringer Ingelheim in 2010, and it’s the first NOAC to be presented as a superior blood thinner compared to the older ones. It was approved for the prevention of blood clots in hip and knee surgery patients first, and then for prevention of stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Just one year after its launch, in 2011 more than 540 patients died because of Pradaxa, according to Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) and Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) reports, accounting for a total of 3,781 serious adverse events such as hemorrhage, acute renal failure and stroke. Pradaxa side effects reports surpassed all other monitored drugs for the year, but at the same a total of approximately 1.1 million Pradaxa prescriptions were dispensed in less than one year, hitting $1.5 billion sales in 2012 no matter the consequences.
Many people filed federal lawsuits against Boehringer Ingelheim which were then consolidated on August 2012, into a multidistrict litigation (MDL) in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Illinois, presided by U.S. District Court Judge David Herndon. In May 2014, the pharmaceutical company agreed to pay $650 million to settle all 4,000 state and federal Pradaxa lawsuits, yielding an average of $150,000 for each plaintiff. Just a few months later, on July 2014, a series of investigations were published on the British Medical Journal (BMJ), accusing Pradax manufacturers of withholding crucial information about the importance of continuous blood monitoring of the medication, that could avoid patients (especially the elderly population) from suffering the medication’s severe side effects such as the potentially lethal internal bleedings. Pradaxa blood levels did vary from patient to patient, similarly to what happens with warfarin, but the company prevented both the FDA and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) from accessing this data for financial reasons.
Eliquis (apixaban) – the “Younger brother” of the NOACs family
Eliquis was the third NOAC approved in the United States by FDA in 2012, and it’s produced by Pfizer and Bristol-Myers Squibb. Eliquis was approved for the prevention of stroke in people with atrial fibrillation, and the prevention and treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). However, back in 2012, a FDA reviewer, dr. Thomas Marciniak, MD, noted how critical data involving several patients’ deaths was missing. De data from more than 300 patients that participated in the trial was omitted, pushing up the statistical significance of the results, in order to portray Eliquis as safer and less deadly than its counterpart Warfarin. In June 2015 the first federal lawsuit against Eliquis was filed after a 60 years old patient died of a gastrointestinal bleeding that doctors weren’t able to stop. The lawsuits accuses Bristol-Myers Squibb of cutting costs and hiring incompetent agents during the large ARISTOTLE study that led to the approval of Eliquis from FDA. Among the alleged accusations the pharmaceutical companies were guilty of “changing and falsifying records, including records disappearing just before the FDA made a site visit, reportedly on the order of an employee of BMS.”
A few months ago, In July 2015, the Wall Street Journal and the Bloomberg reported Eliquis’ approval was stalled and delayed by the FDA for nine months as they found several problems in a large portion of the data coming from the Chinese clinical trial site. The final-stage trial of Eliquis involved some 18,000 Asian patients, with at least 30 sites located in China. In a study site the records were improperly manipulated, while in others a large percentage of the patients received the wrong drug, or the wrong dose of Eliquis. According to FDA, many documents were inappropriately (or fraudulently) manipulated, with unreported adverse events, missing medical outcomes, and patients records disappearing after the agency sent their inspectors in Shanghai.
- Research, Center for Drug Evaluation and. “Drug Safety and Availability – FDA Drug Safety Communication: Safety review of post-market reports of serious bleeding events with the anticoagulant Pradaxa (dabigatran etexilate mesylate)”.fda.gov. http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm282724.htm Retrieved 2015-10-12.
- Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) “QuarterWatch Monitoring FDA MedWatch Reports – Anticoagulants the Leading Reported Drug Risk in 2011 – May 31, 2012 – New Data from 2011 Quarters 3 – 4” http://www.ismp.org/quarterwatch/pdfs/2011Q4.pdf (Accessed June 2015)
- Cohen, D (July 2014). “Dabigatran: how the drug company withheld important analyses”. BMJ 349: g4670. doi:10.1136/bmj.g4670. PMID 25055829.
- Moore TJ, Cohen MR, Mattison DR; Cohen; Mattison (July 2014). “Dabigatran, bleeding, and the regulators”. BMJ 349: g4517. doi:10.1136/bmj.g4517. PMID 25056265
- “Slippery Slope: FDA Reviewer Questions Eliquis Mortality Claim”. www.medpagetoday.com. 2015-08-02. http://www.medpagetoday.com/special-reports/slipperyslope/52869 Retrieved 2015-10-12.
- Burton, Thomas M.; Rockoff, Jonathan D.”Mix-Ups in Clinical Trial Delayed Drug’s Approval”. Wall Street Journal.ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2015-10-12. http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424127887324867904578596081989187750
- Armstrong, Drew. “Chinese Trial Misconduct Delayed Bristol-Myers Medicine”. Bloomberg.com. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2013-07-09/chinese-trial-misconduct-delayed-bristol-myers-medicine Retrieved 2015-10-12.